Dogs cannot link actions, which are separated by time. If a dog makes a mess while you are out there is no point in telling the dog off or getting annoyed; the dog’s brain cannot link the action in the past to the present
Many will say: He knows it has done wrong
It does not know but its instinct can anticipate an angry human reaction.
A dog’s brain is much smaller than man’s in particular the cerebrum – the portion of the brain associated with intellectual function, emotion and personality.
Dogs cannot understand human language. It is far more important to use sound patterns, intonation and facial and body language as a form of communication. A dog wants to please so all learning should be based on positive reinforcement by giving a reward. A large part of a dogs brain is taken up with sensory activity, the interpretation of scent.