Training of dogs does not give the end product.
Dogs natural instinct plays a vital role man first domesticated the dog because he had so many instincts which could be useful, when we think that man has used the dog for many thousands of years for his own benefit, it is very difficult to understand why so few owners and trainers can differentiate between instinct and intelligence.
Instinct is an urge from within which makes a dog act in certain way and has no connection with intelligence. Dogs first instinct is to survive, when he is born the pup squirms about until he finds a teat and then sucks it, no intelligence or learning by any association plays any part in this process. The maternal instinct tells the female to clean up the fetal membrane etc. and stir the puppy into action by licking it. The female is not taught this she has not seen another female do this. Most instincts provide pleasure to the dog and because the dog associates the action with pleasure the instinct grows stronger with usage.
In my opinion instinct is something which is either there or not there. Instinct can be strengthened weakened or diverted it cannot be put there and it cannot be taken away it might lie dormant but once developed it can never be weakened again. I always explain this when people want their dog to be trained for man work once aggression is raised in this manner it cannot be reduced.
A dog with an obsession for chasing balls can be controlled by training and by providing other outlets for his energy the same way if a young dog is diverted the first time he chases a car he may give up the idea, but if he is allowed to chase cars the hunting instinct becomes stronger and in no time it will be very difficult even impossible to cure the habit.
Instinct covers survival maternal hunting guarding pack, and self-preservation.
Self-preservation makes dogs furtive and afraid of the unfamiliar this is no use to man this nervousness in the domestic dog is in my opinion one of the common causes of problems in present day dogs nearly all cases where children have been attacked by dogs and owners being bitten by their own dog arise from nervousness the dog is afraid it is going to be hurt and attacks first.
This instincts of self-preservation has been weakened by simply breeding from bold dogs rather than nervous ones but has never been entirely removed.