The Yorkshire Terrier is an adorable dog with a gorgeous silky coat that looks like a living toy and has unique qualities. A brave heartbeat in her diminutive and graceful body and her selfless devotion to her owners and willingness to defend her home evoke endless respect and affection. Cheerful, intelligent, friendly Yorkie, always ready to share his good mood with others, adored by millions of people and is one of the ten most popular breeds in the world.
- Breed Name: Yorkshire Terrier
- Country of origin: England
- The time of the birth of the breed: the end of the XIX century
- Weight: 2-3.2 kg
- Height (height at the withers): 15-17 cm
- Life span: 12-15 years
- Yorkshire Terrier is an excellent dog, in the character of which courage, agility, endurance are combined with amazing delicacy, intelligence, and quick wit.
- An excellent friend to all family members, but he considers the owner to be one, to whom he is devoted selflessly.
- Yorkie is a fun companion for children and adolescents, ready to join the game and fun with all its energy at any time.
- For the elderly, especially the lonely, it will become a good companion, devoted, and selfless.
- Feels comfortable both in small apartments and in country houses.
- Thanks to his quick wits, the Yorkie is easy to train, but the process is complicated by his restlessness.
- The Yorkshire Terrier, like any decorative dog, requires attention to its appearance. Long-haired dogs need weekly bathing, short-haired Yorkies are bathed every 2-3 weeks. You can learn to do standard haircuts yourself, and model hairstyles are created by grooming masters. During the procedures, the dog likes to be capricious.
- Yorkie is picky and picky about food. Many products are contraindicated for him.
- The health of this tiny dog must be treated with special care and efforts must be made to protect it from injury.
- To buy a guaranteed purebred Yorkshire Terrier, you should contact a breeder with a proven track record.
History of the Breed
Yorkshire Terriers are descended from different types of Scottish Terriers, and this breed owes its name to the area where it was bred – Yorkshire. Terriers from Scotland, a miniature but hardy dog with a decisive character and powerful jaws, were brought to England by Scottish workers who came to Yorkshire in search of work in the middle of the 19th century.
The Yorkshire Terrier has come a long way of genetic transformation before transforming from a brave and merciless rodent hunter into a respectable graceful companion dog. It is not known for certain which breeds of Scottish Terriers became the progenitors of the Yorkie, however, in their today’s appearance, the features of the Clydesdale Terrier, Paisley Terrier, and Sky Terrier are clearly visible.
Presumably among the founders of the breed were also the Waterside Terriers, dogs popular with Yorkshire peasants – hunters for foxes, badgers, and small rodents. Some dog handlers suggest that at the final stage of the formation of the breed, Maltese lapdogs participated in the crossing, to which the Yorkies allegedly owe their silky coat.
Yorkies began showing at dog shows in the UK in 1861, first under the name Rough and Broken-coated, Broken-haired Scotch. In 1874, the new breed received the official name – Yorkshire Terrier. In 1886, the Kennel Club entered the Yorkie into the studbook as an independent breed. In 1898, breeders adopted her standards, which have not changed today.
Yorkshire Terrier Appearance
Dogs have a harmonious physique, compact, stocky body, straight back, straight limbs, round legs, the head is proportional to the body, the muzzle is not long, the bite is scissor-shaped. The eyes are medium in size, dark with dark rims. The ears are erect, small, triangular in shape.
The puppies have a black-brown coat that can be combined in different ways. As they mature (usually around 5-6 months of age), blacks gradually begin to take on a bluish tint and brown becomes lighter. By the age of one and a half, the Yorkshire Terrier’s coat from the back of the head to the base of the tail already has a dark steel bluish color, and the muzzle, chest, and paws are painted in rich golden color.
Yorkshire Terrier Character
Yorkshire Terriers consider themselves the masters of the house while experiencing the most tender feelings for their owner and needing his attention. Like all terriers, they are very energetic, hardy, and have a good reaction. Yorkies are very brave dogs, ready to defend their home and owner without hesitation. They are smart, well trained.
The walk of the Yorkshire Terrier expresses self-confidence and even some arrogance. Walking without a leash, in the wild, he explores the world with curiosity, loves to sniff everything carefully, and listens to unfamiliar sounds with visible anxiety. Despite their ostentatious independence, Yorkies try to keep their master’s insight, and if they don’t find him, they worry.
These cute dogs are very friendly and easily find a “common language” with other animals living in the house. In communicating with strangers, the individual traits and peculiarities of the upbringing of each Yorkshire Terrier are manifested: some are ready to bark at any stranger, others – almost “kiss” a dog that runs up to him, especially a relative.
The intelligence of the Yorkshire Terrier is above average, and it is not difficult to teach him “good manners”. You need to educate your pet from childhood, and first of all, you need to socialize it. You should gradually accustom a Yorkie to house noises: try to speak in low tones at first, do not turn on the TV or the receiver loudly, especially, do not do this at the same time as a washing machine or vacuum cleaner.
Do not pounce on your pet immediately with hugs and kisses – he should also gradually get used to petting. When the dog settles in your family and home, it will already be possible to acquaint him with other people, take him to unfamiliar places, gradually expanding his horizons. If you do everything step by step, without giving the puppy cause for concern, he will grow up as a confident, benevolent and well-balanced dog, not feeling shy and timid even when meeting an impressive fellow tribesman.
Some difficulties in teaching a Yorkie to commands and order arise due to his stubborn, independent character and restlessness, therefore training should be short-lived, and the dog should be encouraged for success. Choose a specific word or phrase for praise that you will always use. Promotional treats should also be ready.
For the Yorkshire Terrier, it is advisable to develop a daily schedule. Feed him, walk him at the same time. Set aside certain hours for playing, caring for him, sleeping. Yorkie will not object to the regime. On the contrary, it will allow him to feel safe and happily expect the next manifestation of attention to his own person. Yorkshire Terrier is easy enough to accustom to a house toilet, which is convenient for elderly people who find it difficult to walk the dog several times a day.
Conditions of Detention and Care
As soon as you bring your Yorkshire Terrier puppy into your home, immediately provide it with food and toilet facilities. They must be constant, otherwise, the dog will get nervous. Choose a warm area in the room for him, and place there a small playpen with a mat and an impromptu cozy bed.
The puppy must be vaccinated. The first vaccinations are given at about 2 months of age. Walking can only be done after all the necessary vaccinations have been made. At first, it is advisable to take the puppy outside 1-2 times a day in warm, but not hot weather for 10-15 minutes. Increase the number of walks and time outdoors should be gradual. It is advisable to take an adult dog for a walk at least 3 times a day for half an hour.
Yorkshire terriers, living in country houses, spend much more time in nature, of course, and usually, they themselves realize when it is time for them to rest. But if you notice that your pet is too played out and overexcited, take him indoors, give water at room temperature and try to gently, with the help of affection, lure the dog into its rest area.
Yorkshire Terriers need regular clipping, eye washing, teeth brushing, ear cleaning, and bathing. None of these procedures are complete without their whims, so you need persistence and confidence in your own actions.
Your dog’s claws should be trimmed every 2-3 months. It is best to do this after bathing. Use quality scissors designed specifically for this procedure. You should always have a styptic pencil or silver nitrate on hand. If you accidentally injure your pet, they can help heal the wound. For those who are not confident in their professionalism, it is better to contact a grooming salon. They will do everything efficiently and carefully.
In the morning and evening, clean the corners of the dog’s eyes with a damp cloth or a special cotton swab. It is also suitable for cleaning your ears. Take your pet’s teeth brushing very seriously, otherwise, the Yorkie will develop tartar and caries. This threatens that by the age of three his teeth will loosen, and by five he may remain completely toothless.
The Yorkshire Terrier needs constant and careful grooming of its extraordinary silky coat. Bathing, combing, haircutting – for some reason, Yorkies especially do not like these procedures. Bathing long-haired dogs should be once a week, short-haired – once every 2-3 weeks, comb, respectively, 2-3 times a day, and once every two days. All this is not very difficult to do on your own, but if a curly haircut follows the bathing, then you can entrust the whole complex of work to the grooming master.
Before bathing the dog, it should be combed thoroughly, then placed in a bathroom with water at a temperature of 34-35 ° C. Place a rubber mat on the bottom of the tub to prevent the dog from slipping. It is better to wash your pet with a special “dog” shampoo. After the procedure, wrap the Yorkie in a towel and take him to a warm room. When it dries up a little, it should be combed again and, armed with sharp scissors, trim the constantly growing hair in the area of the pillows and anus (for hygiene), carefully shorten the hairline at the tip of the ears. If your Yorkshire Terrier is long-haired, distribute combed hair proportionally on both sides and cut the ends just above floor level. The advantage of Yorkies over many other dog breeds is the fact that they practically do not shed.
The Yorkshire Terrier has its own attitude towards food. It is quite common for him not to lick the dishes with food to the bottom, as most dogs do, but to eat exactly as much as he sees fit.
You can feed a Yorkie with homemade food or buy food from specialty stores. Homemade food should include beef and chicken (raw but scalded with boiling water), offal, buckwheat, rice. Among fermented milk products, and their Yorkshire terriers are not very welcome, kefir, cottage cheese, fermented baked milk are recommended. A delicacy for these dogs is vegetables and fruits, both raw and boiled.
There are a number of foods that should be avoided from the Yorkshire Terrier’s diet. Among them:
- fried, fatty, smoked products,
- semolina and oatmeal porridge,
- pastry, sausage, fat cheese,
Yorkies often suffer from a lack of appetite. The desire to eat in a dog can disappear completely if for some reason you have drastically changed the composition of the food. Do not immediately cancel the usual food, just gradually replace it with other ingredients in small portions. It is better to feed the Yorkshire Terrier 2-3 times a day, not counting the symbolic delicacies that can be treated to him for dignified behavior.
Yorkshire Terrier Health and Disease
The Yorkshire Terrier, like any other breed of dog, is prone to certain diseases – congenital or acquired. These dogs have a predisposition to some diseases. So, already at a very early age (from birth to 4 months), a Yorkie can expect such a dangerous and common ailment among this breed as hypoglycemia – a rapid decrease in blood sugar.
Its symptoms are drowsiness, trembling, confused behavior, seizures, weakness, and a decrease in body temperature. The puppy may fall into a coma. As soon as you notice any of these symptoms, stabilize your dog by rubbing the puppy’s gums with honey, and contact your veterinarian immediately. Hypoglycemia occurs in adult dogs but is much less common.
Yorkies, like all terriers, are prone to many cancers (especially blood and stomach cancers).
These tiny dogs have fragile bones, which increases the risk of injury to the neck, hip, and knee. They are also genetically predisposed to retinal dysplasia.
Another unpleasant disease is neurodermatitis, which threatens to ruin the luxurious coat of your pet. The sick dog licks itself continuously, as a result of which the hair begins to fall out. This condition can be caused by stress, nervousness, or extreme boredom. First, change your home environment, change the dog’s lifestyle. In some cases, your veterinarian will prescribe melatonin.
Yorkies easily overheat in the heat, after which they feel bad. In cold weather, they need protection. In cold weather, it is better to dress them up in warm clothes, which can be purchased in specialized stores.
Owners of “mini” (or “toy”) Yorkshire terriers weighing less than 1.8 kg should be aware that they are more painful than standard-sized dogs, as they have weakened immune systems. The life span of such Yorkies is 7-9 years.
How to Choose a Puppy
- Although there is no shortage of Yorkshire Terrier advertisements on the Internet, choosing puppies from photographs is not wise. To get a healthy, cheerful Yorkie with a real pedigree, you need to make sure of everything personally, going directly to the nursery, to the breeder. It is not so easy to find a professional, responsible breeder right away. It is best if he is recommended by a trusted veterinarian or friends who have already used his services. You can also meet the breeder at a dog show.
- Arriving at the kennel, first of all, get an idea of the dog breeder himself. If in front of you is a person who is ready to answer any of your questions with undisguised enthusiasm in detail and competently, in his speech, you can feel genuine love for animals, he himself is interested in the conditions in which his pet will live, you can safely proceed to choose a puppy.
- Actually, puppies at the age of 2.5-3 months are not much different from each other, so take a good look at his mother, who should be near. If she evoked a feeling of beauty, look at the picture of dad. Both parents must have documents.
- If everything is in order with the documents, watch the Yorkshire Terrier puppies themselves. You want an active, tough puppy who takes an interest in everything that surrounds him. He should move with confidence while keeping his back straight. The nose should be black, cold, and damp (warm if just woken up), the gums should be juicy pink. Check the tummy – there should be no swelling in the navel area. The coat should be straight, black with brownish-golden markings, and the texture should already feel silky.
- After examining your chosen one, you will only have to make sure that the puppy has a brand. As a rule, it is located in the groin area or on the inner surface of the ear and consists of letters and six numbers indicating in which nursery he was born and under what number he is registered in the club. The mark number must be indicated on the dog’s documents. Also, the puppy must have a veterinary passport with marks about the complex of vaccinations that must be done for his age.