Pomeranians are popular companion dogs that are becoming more and more common these days in city parks. Along with Chihuahuas and Yorkshire Terriers, they are among the smallest dogs in the world. They share a breed standard with the four other German Spitz types – so they are not to be confused with the Miniature Spitz (Kleinspitz), which is significantly larger.
The Smallest Spitz in a Cheeky Plush Toy Look
Pomeranians are known for their small body size. Not all breeders and fans of the breed agree on how small a Pom can be. According to the FCI standard, the optimal height at the withers is 21 cm, 18 to 24 cm are tolerated for males and females. The AKC (American Kennel Club) specifies a permissible height at the withers of between 18 and 30 cm. Teacup Pomeranians are also being offered more and more often on the Internet – the miniature version of the Pomeranian easily fits into a coffee cup even as an adult.
The size is crucial: all Spitz types in comparison
All five official Spitz types share a breed standard and are considered size variants of the same breed, although some come in specific colors. The physique and the coating structure also differ slightly.
- Wolfspitz (Keeshond): 43 – 55 cm height at the withers, plush grey-shaded coat
- Great Spitz: 42-50 cm high at the withers, the coat is black, white, or brown
- Mittelspitz: 30 – 38 cm at the withers, all colors are permissible
- Kleinspitz: 23 – 29 cm at the withers, all colors are permitted
- Pomeranian (Pom): 18-24 cm at the withers, all colors plus merle are permitted
- Teacup Pomeranian: Height at the withers > 20 cm, extremely tiny (no longer corresponds to the breed standard)
Pomeranian Appearance – Cute plush ball with a cheeky face
- With the Minispitz, the hair around the head sticks out strongly or very strongly, depending on how it is groomed, so that the wedge-shaped head shape is hardly recognizable. They should not form a clear apple head, which is specifically preferred for the teacup variant.
- The muzzle is quite short and the lips are tight. The round nose is black (brown if the coat color is brown) and quite small.
- The almond-shaped eyes should not be too big and are always dark in color. They are framed by dark eyelids.
- The small erect ears are not rounded at the tips. They are shaped like pointed triangles and start very high on the head. With plush teddy hairstyles, the tips of the ears hardly protrude from the fur.
- The fairly wide neck is covered by a voluminous mane. It transitions into a short, firm back that does not drop towards the croup. The chest is very well developed. The height at the withers corresponds approximately to the body length of the quadruped.
- Pomeranians have very strong bones for their size. An exception is the teacup variant, which is very delicately built. The shoulders are heavily muscled and the shoulder blade is well laid back. Legs are quite straight, with moderately bent knees and straight metatarsals.
- They have round cat paws with well-developed pads and claws in front and behind.
- The tail is set high and is always carried curled tightly over the back. It has bushy hair and rounds off the silhouette in profile.
Teddy and fox – The coat types of the Pomeranian
Like all German Spitz, Pomeranians have a two-layer coat with a very dense, fluffy undercoat that allows the topcoat to stick out. The hair should never be wavy or frizzy and form a lush mane around the neck. Bushy feathering also forms on the backs of the legs and on the tail.
Where does the teddy pom come from?
Minor internet celebrities like the Pomeranian Boo, followed by millions of fans on Instagram, look only roughly similar to the Pom according to the breed standard. Although the breed standard prohibits grooming, many owners have their puppies trimmed by the barber. When the undercoat is gently trimmed and the hard topcoat is cut into shape, the result is the cute teddy look that is so popular on social media.
Preferred colors for Pomeranian
- White: Popular color, the tone should be pure white, with a slightly yellow tinge on the head and ears being tolerated.
- Black: White markings or tan markings of any kind are undesirable.
- Brown: If the coat color is brown, the skin and nose are also brown.
- Orange: One color, slight lightening on the chest, tail, and trousers are tolerated.
- Gray clouded: fur markings like the wolf spitz, silver-grey basic color with black hair tips.
Other colorations that occur
- Cream Sable or Orange Sable (sable panels)
- Black and Tan
- White with piebald (in all colors)
- Merle (actually not allowed)
The History of the Pomeranian in Germany and Internationally
The Pomeranian is the smallest of the German Spitz. The breed was created through careful breeding selection: All German Spitz are descended from the Wolfsspitz, which has been bred smaller and smaller over the years. The first records of the dwarf type date back to the 18th century. Prominent breeders contributed to the early spread of the breed: In 1767, Queen Charlotte, the wife of the then British King George III, brought the first specimens to Great Britain, where they are still one of the most popular domestic dogs today. Queen Victoria also devoted herself to breeding Pomeranians (and 14 other breeds).
Is the Pomeranian really from Pomerania?
Early forms of Pomeranian were discovered in Pomerania in the 18th century and exported abroad. White poms in particular were very popular with the English nobility. Today’s breed standard only developed in the course of the 20th century, as breeders in the USA and England preferred smaller and smaller dogs in breeding and crossed in other coat colors. It is not yet known which breeds were crossed to expand the genetic color palette. Most Teacup Poms are not purebred but are Pomeranian Chihuahua mixes.